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ELA G7:M1:U2:L7

Considering Author’s Purpose: Comparing Fictional and Historical Experiences of the Second Sudanese Civil War (Chapters 14 and 15, Plus Rereading “Time Trip,” Continued)

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can cite several pieces of evidence to support an analysis of informational text. (RI 7.1)
  • I can analyze the development of a theme throughout a literary text. (RL.7.2)
  • I can compare and contrast a fictional and historical account of a time, place, or character. (RL.7.9.)
  • I can analyze how authors of fiction use or alter history based on my comparison of a fictional and historical account of the same time, place, or character. (RL.7.9)

Supporting Targets

Learning TargetsOngoing Assessments
  • I can cite several pieces of text-based evidence from “Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War” to support my analysis of the experience of people in South Sudan. 
  • I can compare and contrast the accounts of survival in “Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War” and A Long Walk to Water.
  • I can analyze how Linda Sue Park used or altered history in A Long Walk to Water. 

  • Two-column chart from Work Time
  • Exit ticket

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1.  Opening 

A. Entry Task and Review Learning Targets (5 minutes)

2.  Work Time 

A. Gathering Evidence to Compare Two Texts (10 minutes)

B. Chalk Talk Protocol (10 minutes)

C. Debrief Chalk Talk (10 minutes)

3.  Closing and Assessment

A. Exit Ticket: Why Did Linda Sue Park Use Details in A Long Walk to Water That Did Not Really Happen? (10 minutes)

4.  Homework: Note: This homework was assigned in Lesson 6 and is due at Lesson 8.

A. Reread Chapters 14 and 15 and add two quotes to your Gathering Textual Evidence graphic organizer. 

B. Read Chapters 16–18 and complete the Reader’s Notes (both parts) for these chapters. 

C. Reread Chapters 16 – 18 and add two quotes to your Gathering Textual Evidence graphic organizer. 

  • This lesson is designed to address RL.7.9, which is a fairly sophisticated standard. Students compare and contrast historical accounts and fictional accounts of historical events. The goal is that through this analysis, they will better understand both the history and the fiction, including how and why authors of fiction choose to alter history in order to communicate a theme to readers (RL.7.2). This lesson focuses on both comparing and contrasting, building upon the foundation of comparing in the previous lesson. 
  • As in the previous lesson, the use of the word “alter” in the learning target refers to Park adding to or elaborating on historical facts. 
  • Review: Chalk Talk protocol (Appendix 1).
  • The quotes for Chalk Talk were chosen for their insight into the author’s intentions. These quotes should help students think about why Linda Sue Park wrote the novel, and the choices she made as an author of fiction. The quotes include several from Park and Salva Dut. The other two quotes, from the novel itself, were chosen because they reflect ideas that are not evident in “Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War.” Encourage your class to think about why Park would include characters, events, or details that may not have really happened. 
  • Set up your room for Chalk Talk by making sure the charts are posted where students can easily read them and write on them. Consider spreading out the charts so students can more easily access them. 
  • Chalk Talk is a protocol that asks students to have a “discussion” on paper. This allows students to respond to others’ questions and comments in any order and build off others’ ideas. Alternatively, it is possible to give more structure to a Chalk Talk by setting up the chart papers as two-column I Notice, I Wonder charts with the quote at the top. Based on the needs of your students, determine whether to provide this additional structure or leave the Chalk Talk more open.
  • It is important to take a few minutes to set the expectations for Chalk Talk if the students are not familiar with this protocol. Emphasize that silence helps support everyone’s thinking and learning during this protocol. Also, remind them that, as in spoken discussions, questions and comments need to be written respectfully and students need to stay on task. 
  • In advance: See the Quotations for Chalk Talk supporting material. Write each of the quotes at the top of a piece of chart paper, leaving plenty of room for students to write comments and questions about each. If your class is large, consider writing the same quote on two different charts so that you have eight charts total. 
  • Note that this lesson Opening varies the routine. Students do not review vocabulary from the novel; instead, they focus on the key academic vocabulary of “contrast.” 
  • Post: learning targets, entry task.

Vocabulary

VocabularyMaterials

contrast, cite, analyze, alter (v)

  • Vocabulary Entry Task (one per student)
  • “Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War” (from Unit 1, Lesson 6; one per student)
  • Document camera
  • Comparing Historical and Fictional Experiences in Sudan note-catcher (one per student and one for the teacher)
  • A Long Walk to Water (book; one per student) 
  • Quotations for Chalk Talk (for Teacher Reference)
  • Chart paper displayed around the room, each with a quote on it (four pieces; see Work Time B)
  • Markers (one per student)
  • Exit ticket (one per student)

Opening

Opening

A. Entry Task and Review Learning Targets (5 minutes)

  • Post the Vocabulary Entry Task in advance:
  • “Carefully read the learning target below and make inferences about the meaning of the underlined word.” 

* “I can compare and contrast the accounts of survival in ‘Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War’ and A Long Walk to Water.

* What does the word contrast mean? Underline the parts of the learning target that could help you figure this out.

  • Remind students that the entry task is done individually. Assure them that they will get better at thinking about words in context both by grappling alone (the entry task) and by talking over their thinking (during the discussion of the entry task). 
  • When students are finished, call on several of them to share their thinking. Make sure they understand that contrast means to find differences between two things. 
  • Review the other learning targets:

* “I can cite several pieces of text-based evidence from ‘Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War’ to support my analysis of the experience of people in South Sudan.” 

* “I can analyze how Linda Sue Park used or altered history in A Long Walk to Water.” 

  • Point out that students focused on the first learning target in the previous lesson. 
  • Invite the class to read the third learning target. Ask what alter means. Call on one or two students. If it is not clearly defined, make sure students know that in this context, alter is a verb that means “change.” Briefly discuss how an author can alter history when writing fiction. For her book, Park alters history by adding to it or emphasizing certain facts. 
  • Let students know that the third learning target builds on the first two and that this will prepare them for the Mid-Unit Assessment. 

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Gathering Evidence to Compare Two Texts (10 minutes)

  • Set purpose for students, saying something like: “Yesterday with your partner, you compared a fictional and a historical text. Now you are going to work individually to gather evidence to support your comparisons.” Remind them that comparing usually involves focusing on similarities.
  • Display the Comparing Historical and Fictional Experiences in Sudan note-catcher on the document camera or create the same two-column structure on the white board. Model how to use the two-column note-catcher to compare “Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War” and A Long Walk to Water. For example, you could model in the following way:

* “In the article, I noticed that it mentioned how difficult it was to survive while trying to escape to Ethiopia. I know that is similar to Salva’s experience. So, on the left side of my notes, I will write the quote from the article that says, ‘They went days without food or water, eating leaves and berries and sucking liquid from mud to stay alive.’” As you are speaking, write the quote. 

* Then say: “Next to that, in the right-hand column, I will write, ‘In Chapter 9, Salva was walking through the
desert and didn’t have enough water,’” and write that in the right-hand column. 

  • After modeling, invite students to think of more similarities and add them to their own note-catchers. Give them about 5 minutes. When they have done that, ask students to share what they added with their seat partner. While students are sharing, circulate and check that pairs are collecting relevant quotes. Clarify any questions or confusion students have. 
  • Once the students have finished sharing, refocus the class. Ask for a few pairs to share something they added to their charts. Add to the chart on the document camera or white board. 

B. Chalk Talk (10 minutes)

  • Tell students that now that they have looked for similarities between “Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War” and A Long Walk to Water, they will think about the choices that Linda Sue Park made when she wrote the book. Explain that A Long Walk to Water is historical fiction. It is based on real events, but it is not all literally true. For instance, although Salva is a real person, Nya is not. Salva’s experiences in the book are based on his experiences in real life. Nya’s experiences in the book are based on real events, but she is a fictional character. 
  • Point out the quotations for Chalk Talk on chart paper around the room. Tell students that each chart has a quote from the book. The quotes from Chapters 10 and 14 are from Salva’s story, and the other two quotes are from “A Message from Salva Dut” and the Author’s Note at the end of the book. 
  • Tell the students that this activity will help them with the third learning target: “I can analyze how Linda Sue Park used or altered history in A Long Walk to Water.” Keep in mind the similarities that you found between the novel and “Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War.”
  • Review the Chalk Talk protocol for the students. Set expectations that this activity is done silently, so that everyone has an opportunity to read, reflect, and respond. Distribute markers and let students engage. As students are reading and writing on the chart paper, walk around. Feel free to add questions or comments to push the students to think more deeply. 

  • Chalk Talk supports ELLs and SPED students because it allows them more time to consider comments and formulate their thoughts than they would have in a spoken discussion. 

C. Debrief Chalk Talk (10 minutes)

  • Look over the chart paper and talk about what you notice. It could be something like: “I noticed that many of you had questions about why Linda Sue Park included Salva learning to read,” or “There was a lot of disagreement about the quote from Chapter 10.” Take this opportunity to skim the charts and notice where students seemed to understand well or not. 
  • Ask students to turn to their partner and discuss some of the choices that Park made when writing 
  • A Long Walk to Water.
  • To help guide student discussions, pose questions about author intention, such as: 

* “Why did Linda Sue Park write this book?” 

* “Why did Park include so many historical facts in the book?” 

* “Why did Park include details like Salva learning to read?” 

* “If you wanted to best understand what happened in Sudan and how it affected people, would you read the novel or the article?”

  • After giving students time to discuss with their partner, cold call on pairs to share their thoughts. Listen for students to make distinctions like: “If you want the historical facts, it would be better to read an article. However, if you want to understand people’s emotional experiences, it might be better to read the novel” or “Since Park knows Salva, she cares about this topic, so she wanted people to understand the history as well as Salva’s experience.” 
  • To support ELLs, write instructions and questions on the board as often as possible. Having a visual helps students understand better.

Closing & Assessments

Closing

A. Exit Ticket: Why Did Linda Sue Park Use Details in A Long Walk to Water That Did Not Really
 Happen? (10 minutes) 

  • Tell students that now that they have had a chance to think and talk about this idea of authors altering history, they get to write their own ideas about where and why Linda Sue Park might have done this. Continue to reinforce for students that authors make deliberate decisions when writing. These decisions are designed to affect the reader or help the author get across some sort of message.
  • Distribute the exit ticket and ask students to respond in writing.

* “What is one example of the way Linda Sue Park altered history in A Long Walk to Water? Why might she make the choice to alter history in A Long Walk to Water?”

Assessment

None

Homework

Homework

Note: This homework was assigned in Lesson 6 and is due in Lesson 8. 

  • Reread Chapters 14 and 15 and add two quotes to your Gathering Textual Evidence graphic organizer. 
  • Read Chapters 16–18 and complete the Reader’s Notes (both parts) for these chapters. 
  • Reread Chapters 16 – 18 and add two quotes to your Gathering Textual Evidence graphic organizer. 

Supporting Materials

None

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