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ELA G7:M1:U2:L6

Comparing Historical and Fictional Accounts: Second Sudanese Civil War (Chapters 14 and 15, Plus Rereading “Time Trip”)

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can use a variety of strategies to determine the meaning of unknown words or phrases. (L. 7.4)
  • I can analyze the development of a theme throughout a literary text. (RL.7.2)
  • I can compare and contrast a fictional and historical account of a time, place, or character. (RL.7.9.)
  • I can cite several pieces of evidence to support an analysis of informational text. (RI 7.1)

Supporting Targets

Learning TargetsOngoing Assessments
  • I can use context clues to deter Gathering Textual Evidence graphic organizer for Chapters 11-13 (from homework) mine word meanings. 
  • I can compare the accounts of survival in “Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War” and A Long Walk to Water.
  • I can cite several pieces of text-based evidence to support my comparison of “Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War” and the novel A Long Walk to Water.

  • Reader’s Notes from Chapters 14-15 (from homework)
  • Gathering Textual Evidence graphic organizer for Chapters 11-13 (from homework)
  • Exit Ticket

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1.  Opening

A. Vocabulary Entry Task (5 minutes)

B. Reviewing Reader’s Dictionary and Introducing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

2.  Work Time

A. Reviewing Chapters 14 and 15: Adding to Our Anchor Charts (10 minutes)

B. Rereading “Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War” (10 minutes)

C. Comparing Historical Accounts in “Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War” and A Long Walk to Water (10 minutes)

3.  Closing and Assessment

A. Exit Ticket: Challenges to Survival in the “Time Trip” and the Novel (5 minutes) 

4.  Homework: Note: this homework is due at the start of Lesson 8. 

A. Reread Chapters 14 and 15 and add two quotes to your Gathering Textual Evidence graphic organizer. 

B. Read Chapters 16–18 and complete the Reader’s Notes (both parts) for these chapters. 

C. Reread Chapters 16 – 18 and add two quotes to your Gathering Textual Evidence graphic organizer. 

  • This lesson builds on Unit 1, Lesson 6, in which students did an initial read of the informational text “Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War.” In that lesson, they made connections between the article and Salva’s experience in A Long Walk to Water. Now, in Lessons 6 and 7 of Unit 2, students return to this text to compare it with the experiences of Salva in A Long Walk to Water in much more detail now that they are further into the novel.
  • The central purpose of these two lessons aligns directly with RL.7.9. Reread this standard to ground yourself. Students analyze the author’s choice to use history in a fictional narrative. The standard mentions “understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history.” In these lessons, that standard is addressed as the class considers how an author can add to or elaborate on historical accounts to suit the purpose of the novel. 
  • This lesson is students’ first explicit work with this standard and provides critical scaffolding leading up to their Mid-Unit 2 Assessment (in Lesson 9). Preview Lesson 9 in advance to have a clear picture of where the class is heading for this next sequence of lessons. 
  • In advance: Review Unit 1, Lesson 6, specifically Work Time A: Reading and Annotating for Gist. Also, prepare model annotations of the article “Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War” that reflect the same type of annotations that students did in Unit 1, Lesson 6. Be sure the annotations show the gist of each paragraph. Be sure the gist shows annotations of each paragraph. 
  • Students will need their annotated copy of this article from Unit 1. Prepare new texts in case some students don’t have it so all of them can dig in to the reading. If students don’t have a place to keep their work, this lesson will also work well if all of them are given prepared copies of the text. 
  • Post: learning targets, entry task.

Vocabulary

VocabularyMaterials

infer, context clues, juxtaposition; isolated (84), orphaned (84), refugee (throughout), aid worker, abruptly (94), braced, frigid (95)

  • A Long Walk to Water (book; one per student) 
  • Vocabulary Entry Task (one per student)
  • Reader’s Notes, Chapters 16–18 (one per student)
  • Gathering Textual Evidence graphic organizer, Chapters 14–15 (one per student)
  • Gathering Textual Evidence graphic organizer, Chapters 16–18 (one per student)
  • Salva/Nya anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2)
  • Survival anchor chart (begun in Lesson 1)
  • Survival anchor chart (student’s notes) (begun in Lesson 1; one per student)
  • Discussion Appointments in Salva’s Africa (from Lesson 1, one per student)
  • “Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War” (from Unit 1, Lesson 6; one per student and one to display)
  • Document camera
  • Exit ticket (one per student)
  • Reading Closely: Guiding Questions (from Lesson 2; one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Vocabulary Entry Task (5 minutes) 

  • Distribute Vocabulary Entry Task as students enter: 
  • “Kakuma had been a dreadful place, isolated in the middle of a dry, windy desert.” (84)

* “What does the word isolated mean? Underline the parts of the excerpt that could help you figure this out.”

* “What does aid worker mean? What did you find on pages 85 and 86 that helped you figure it out?”

  • Remind students that the entry task should be done individually. Assure them that they will get better at thinking about words in context both by grappling alone (the entry task) and by talking over their thinking (during the discussion of the entry task). 
  • As students do the entry task, check their homework: Reader’s Notes for Chapters 14 and 15.
  • Provide specific positive feedback for meeting the expectation of individual work during the entry task and following your routine for having their homework checked. 
  • Ask a student to offer a definition of isolated. Listen for an answer similar to: “far away from other places or buildings; remote.” Point out that the word isolated has the root sol in the middle. Ask: 

* “What do you think sol means?” 

  • If they are having difficulty, prompt the students with other “sol” words, such as “solo,” “sole,” or “solitary.” If students don’t come to “alone” as the root’s definition, provide it for them. 

  •  To support ELLs, write instructions and questions on the board as often as possible. Having a visual helps students understand better. 
  • Also, many languages share the same Greek and Latin roots. When discussing these, you can ask students to think of words in their own language that may be related. For instance, “solo” in Spanish translates to “alone” in English.  

B. Reviewing Reader’s Dictionary and Introducing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

  • Post definitions of other words from Chapters 14 and 15 and ask students to review their Reader’s Dictionaries in their Reader’s Notes and correct their own work as necessary. Remind them that this skill will improve with practice. Reassure them that it is OK if they are not getting them all right. Be clear that there are two purposes for focusing on vocabulary work. It will help them build knowledge related to the theme of survival, which is their focus as they read this novel, and it will help them practice the more general skill of figuring words out, which will make them better readers of any text. 
  • Distribute Reader’s Notes for Chapters 16-18, Gathering Textual Evidence graphic organizer, Chapters 14-15, and Gathering Textual Evidence graphic organizer, Chapters 16-18.
  • Share the learning targets:

* “I can use context clues to determine word meanings.” 

* “I can compare the accounts of survival in ‘Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War’ and A Long Walk to Water.

* “I can cite several pieces of text-based evidence to support my comparison of ‘Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War’ and the novel A Long Walk to Water.”

  • Ask students to get out the Reading Closely: Guiding Questions handout and look in particular at Section II. Invite students to choose one of today’s learning targets and ask: “What phrases do you see on this handout that relate to the learning target? When you find one, put your finger on it.”
  • When most students have their finger on one, ask a few students to share out. Listen for students to say: “What information or ideas does the text present?” or “What do I learn about the topic as I read?” or “How do the ideas relate to what I already know?”
  • Ask all students to star a statement that relates to this learning target. Remind students that they have been working on the first learning target consistently. 
  • Remind them that they worked on the second learning target in Unit 1 (Lesson 6), when they read a short informational text about the “Lost Boys of Sudan.” Tell them that they will revisit that text today to learn more; it will be interesting to see how much more they understand now that they are much further into the novel.  

Work Time

Work Time

A. Reviewing Chapters 14 and 15: Adding to Our Anchor Charts (10 minutes)

  • Be sure students have their text A Long Walk to Water. 
  • Invite students to turn their attention to their Reader’s Notes from Chapters 14 and 15. 
  • Ask one pair of students to add to the Salva/Nya anchor chart using their notes from Chapters 14 and 15. 
  • While one pair is adding to the anchor chart, tell the other pairs to use their gist notes to add to the Survival anchor chart.
  • Invite the pair who added to the Salva/Nya anchor chart to share what they added. Ask students to compare their own gist notes to the anchor chart. Ask: 

* “Does anyone want to add or clarify anything that was added to the anchor chart?” 

  • If so, make changes to anchor chart. Be sure that students have added something like this to the Salva/Nya anchor chart:

* “Water came out of the borehole in Nya’s village.” 

* “Salva left Kakuma refugee camp and walked to Ifo refugee camp.” 

* “Salva met an aid worker named Michael who taught him how to read English.”

* “Salva is chosen to go to America.”

* “Salva flew to New York and met his new family.” 

  • Next, cold call on pairs to add to the Survival anchor chart. With each factor, ask: 

* “What happened in the text that makes you say that?” 

  • Push students to use evidence from the text to support their answer.  Remind students to update the Survival anchor chart (Student’s Notes).  
  • Tell student that in a moment, they will meet with their partners at the White Nile discussion appointment (as listed on their copy of Discussion Appointments in Salva’s Africa). Before they transition, tell them they will focus their discussion on the juxtaposition of Salva and Nya in Chapters 14 and 15. Remind them that in each chapter, author Linda Sue Park provides a juxtaposition of Salva and Nya. Since Unit 2, Lesson 2, the students have kept track of juxtaposition using the Salva/Nya chart. 
  • Post these questions for students to discuss: 

* “Looking at the Salva/Nya chart, in what ways are they juxtaposed?  

* “What comparisons is the author drawing between them? 

* “What contrasts?”

* “What are we learning about survival from these characters and their juxtaposition?”

  • Ask students to take their copies of A Long Walk to Water and their Reader’s Notes to their discussion appointment and begin. As students work, circulate to listen in. Do not give answers; rather, probe and prompt students back to the text. Use this conferring time as an opportunity to gather critical informal assessment data about how well the class understands the concept of juxtaposition. 

B. Rereading: “Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War” (10 minutes)

  • Ask students to get out the article “Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War” (from Unit 1, Lesson 6). 
  • Point out that, as a class, they have been thinking about the challenges Salva and Nya face to survive in the novel. Set purpose with brief direct instruction: Tell students that Linda Sue Park had to do a lot of research about the Sudanese civil war in order to write A Long Walk to Water. Once she knew the history well, she could decide what to include in the novel and why, and what else she might want to make up from her imagination. Let students know that in this lesson, they will begin to analyze the historical information Park used in the novel and how her choices emphasize the theme of survival in the book. To do that, the class will revisit the text “Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War” to gather historical information to compare to A Long Walk to Water.  
  • Ask students to take 5 minutes to reread “Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War” for a specific purpose: As they read, they should underline any details that help them answer this question:

*  “Why was Sudan a challenging place to survive?”

  • While students read and underline, circulate to see what details students are focusing on in the text. Clarify the task as needed and provide additional modeling or guided practice to individual students if needed. 
  • After about 5 minutes, pause students and refocus them whole group. Cold call on several of them to share something they underlined in the article. Encourage them to be specific, directing their classmates to the paragraph and sentence where they found these details. Consider displaying your own text on a document camera and modeling underlining the key details students share, so all students can follow along.
  • Listen for details like:

* “Apart from an 11-year peace from 1972 to 1983, Sudan has been entrenched in war since it became an 
independent nation in1956.”

* “They went days without food or water, eating leaves and berries and sucking liquid from mud to stay alive.”

* “The boys had to cross the crocodile-infested River Gilo.”

  • If students give an answer that is unclear, push them to explain further. Clarify if necessary. 

C. Comparing Historical Accounts in “Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War” and A Long Walk to Water 
     (5 minutes)

  • Refocus students on the Survival anchor chart. Ask them to take 5 minutes to work with their seat partners to make a list in their notebooks of challenges to survival or means of survival that are mentioned in both the article and the novel.   
  • After a few minutes, refocus the class. Cold call a few students to share something their partner said. Add these to the Survival anchor chart. Invite students to look at the learning target: 

* “I can compare the accounts of survival in ‘Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War’ and A Long Walk to Water.” 

  • Let them know that they compared, or looked for similarities in, a fictional and a historical account of the Second Sudanese Civil War. In the next lesson, they will focus on finding differences instead. 

Closing & Assessments

Closing

A. Exit Ticket: Challenges to Survival in the “Time Trip” and the Novel (5 minutes)  

  • Reread the learning targets and tell students that they will reflect on these targets in writing. 
  • Distribute the exit ticket and read it aloud: 

* “What are two challenges to survival that are mentioned in both ‘Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War’ and
A Long Walk to Water?” 

  • Give students 2 to 3 minutes to write their exit ticket. Tell them that they will continue comparing A Long Walk to Water and “Time Trip: Sudan’s Civil War” tomorrow, thinking even more about what Linda Sue Park chose to include in her novel, what she added or changed, and why.

Assessment

None

Homework

Homework
  • Reread Chapters 14 and 15 and add two quotes to your Gathering Textual Evidence graphic organizer. 
  • Read Chapters 16–18 and complete the Reader’s Notes (both parts) for these chapters. 
  • Reread Chapters 16 – 18 and add two quotes to your Gathering Textual Evidence graphic organizer. (Due at Lesson 8)

Supporting Materials

None

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