C. Using Quotes in Essays (10 minutes)
- Tell students that one thing that makes a literary essay effective is using quotes from the book to support your ideas. Say: “There are rules for how to use quotes, and writers have to pay attention to those rules to make their work clear and correct. To see some good ways to use quotes, we will look at the model essay again and focus on the quotes and how the author of the essay used them.”
- Point out that looking at the essay for using quotes is the beginning of working on learning targets 2 and 3. Ask students to reread the model essay and complete the following analysis of the text:
Underline quotes in the text.
Discuss the following with a partner:
* “How did you identify the quotes?”
* “In which paragraphs did you find quotes, and why do you think the author used these quotes from the novel
in these places?”
- Be sure to distinguish that in this context, quotes means any words taken directly from the novel, not just what a character says out loud. Give students 5 minutes to reread, annotate, and discuss with their partner.
- Cold call a student or two for responses to each of these items. List their responses on the new Using Quotes in Essays anchor chart. Be sure the class notices the following:
* All quotes are words taken directly from the text.
* All quotes begin and end with quotation marks.
* The quotes give details to support the ideas in a paragraph.
* Quotes are followed by a number in parentheses indicating the page number in the book from which the quote was drawn.
* If a character said the quote, that character is named.
* Every quote has some thinking (analysis/explanation) around it.
- Some students may notice other things such as that some of the quotes are things someone said and some are what the author described, and some quotes are not complete sentences but are part of the essay’s sentence. List these items on the anchor chart as well; however, these things will not be an expectation for use of quotes in their own essays at this time.
- For students who are more sophisticated in their writing, noticing and listing these items will give them ideas for expanding their work beyond the basic criteria for this first literary analysis essay.
- Point out that in their essays, students will need to use quotes correctly. Emphasize the purpose of using quotes: It helps writers prove what they are thinking in a way that is specific enough that readers can understand. This is a skill students have been working on throughout the module. Using quotes also proves to the reader that the writer has read carefully and thought deeply about the text. Relate this back to the work students did in Unit 1 about “Things Close Readers Do” and the Odell Education resource students have used related to “Reading Closely for Details.” Give students specific positive praise for ways they have been developing this skill of “reading for evidence” throughout the module.
- Keep this Using Quotes in Essays anchor chart to refer to in Lesson 12, when students will share some examples of their own sentences using quotes.