- L.4.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
a. Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).
b. Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
c. Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
d. Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
e. Form and use prepositional phrases.
f. Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
g. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).
- L.4.2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
a. Use correct capitalization.
b. Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
c. Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
d. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.
L.4.3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
a. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.
b. Choose punctuation for effect.
c. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).